Table of Contents

  1. Introduction
  2. Project Definition
  3. Planning Definitions
  4. Responsibilities
  5. Planning/Schedule levels and function
  6. Development of Construction - Schedules/histograms/progress curves
  7. Subcontract - Bid Package, award and planning
  8. Subcontract progress, productivity, reporting and assesment
  9. Standard planning symbols
  10. Register of standard forms
  11. Communication
  12. Conclusion
  13. Attachment summary

1. Introduction

This Procedure describes the methods and procedures in use in the Company Construction Organization to plan and schedule (in barchart form) the Construction phase of a project and draws together de­scriptions of the systems and procedures used for analyzing and recording outstanding work, outstanding time, productivity analysis and projections.

It is evident that construction planning is directly linked to the home office planning and scheduling of engineering and procurement. This document therefore includes a brief description of methods, procedures and planning documents produced by the Home Office planning department.

2. Project Definition

The major parameters defining project planning and scheduling are scope, cost, time, resource, material and productivity.

The above key parameters are related in a logically linked manner towards the final objective, the completion of the construction of a process plant against the agreed schedule.

3. Planning Definitions

In describing planning, Company uses the following definitions.

- PLANNING - Planning is the formulation of the logic and execu­tion strategy of the work to be done.

- SCHEDULING - Scheduling is the proper assignment of resources to complete the work within the contract time scale and in the most efficient manner.

- MONITORING - Monitoring is the continuous assessment of the work completed in every discipline and every stage until completion.

- PRODUCTIVITY - Productivity is the manhours "earned" for work done against manhours expended, i.e. the value of the pay items.

- PROGRESS - Progress is the measured value of work done in agreed units of execution against contractually laid down pay items.

- TRENDING - Trending is the analysis of progress, productivity and cash flow in order to forecast any adverse factors and to take full advantage of resources, cost and progress savings.

- CONTROLLING - Controlling is the continuous assessment of the most effective use of money, material and resources to maintain a smooth progression towards completion.

- CORRECTIVE ACTION - Corrective action is the analysis and implementation of the most effective action to recover or reverse any adverse trend of progress, productivity or cash flow.

- REPORTING - Reporting is a standardized procedure to record progress and productivity which are continuously measured in order to assess the viability of scheduled completion dates throughout the life of the Project.

4. Responsibilities

4.1 Project Construction Manager

It is the responsibility of the Project Construction Manager to ensure that subcontractor performance adheres to the project plan­ning and scheduling objectives.

4.2 Field Construction Planner

The Field Construction Planner is responsible for planning, schedul­ing, monitoring, trending and controlling practices throughout the Construction and Commissioning phases of a process plant he reports, through the field organization structure, to the Project Construc­tion Manager.

The Field Planning Department is responsible for reporting all field progress in sufficient detail to the Home Office project planner so that he can monitor and update the project schedule.

The Construction Planner will:

- Continue to develop and keep updated the schedules that are started in the Home Office in order to monitor trend and control the field activities.

- Ensure that all subcontractor-produced schedules are passed to him for assessment, comment, subcontractor coordination and approval.

- Ensure that all subcontractor schedules are adequately produced and in sufficient detail to permit proper monitoring, trending and control.

- Ensure that all subcontractor manhours and physical progress returns are made at the right time and frequency and in suffi­cient detail to maximize monitoring, trending and control.

- Assess subcontractor progress and productivity and attend all meetings at which progress related matters are discussed.

- Prepare Company specialist/subcontractor work lists, discuss and review with all superintendents and personnel responsible to ensure compliance and highlight problems.

- Walk the field daily or with whatever freqency is necessary to maintain a practical fluent awareness of the field situation at all times.

- Develop with field management and subcontractors any detail schedules, records or other information that may be identified when the need arises.

- By continuous resource to expediting and other reports, main­tain a constant awareness of the actual and "due at field" dates of equipment, certified drawings, vendor supply and erect materials prefabricated spools and any significant bulk or specific E & K 'items'.

- Update all progress and manpower documentation, report the actual and overall gain of every subcontractor activity against the schedule requirements, summarize work completed, highlight problems and assess period (in weeks) ahead of or behind schedules. This is done on a monthly basis or more frequently as required.

Effective project control by the Planner results in the coordination of the above elements into specific recommendations to the Project Construction Manager, who is responsible for the direction of the construction of a Project and of the implementation of corrective action.

4.3 Home Office - Field Transition

A senior construction representative should participate sufficiently in the Home Office in developing the construction part of the Project Detail Schedule. He will interact with the project manager and the project planning engineer to develop the execution plan and Key Date Schedule for subcontractors. This participation should be of sufficient duration to effectively accomplish, among other things, the following:

- Familiarize himself with the schedule for certified drawings to the field, deliveries of equipment, and materials including Key deliveries which are centers of gravity of bulk materials.

- Review the construction part of the Project Schedule and refine it as necessary.

- Establish start dates for the various construction disciplines.

- Establish completion dates for the various construction disci­plines based upon contractual delivery/commissioning require­ments and thus establish the rate of progress required within the schedule.

- Discuss, agree and develop the planning documents and narrative format required by the Project Manager and Construction Manager for the Construction Monthly Report.

- Liaise with Cost Engineering on the parameters for weighted physical progress of all field engineering disciplines and the selection of pay items to monitor and control the progress in the simplest and most effective way for Subcontractor Adminis­tration, Project Management and Client relations.

- Develop the basis of the Field Planning records and files for the subcontractors.

- Discuss, agree and develop with the Project Subcontracts Manager the planning and reporting required contractually of each subcontractor discipline to optimize subcontract progress monitoring, trending and control.

- Attend and contribute to any construction and/or planning related meetings that may develop or be called during his assignment.

- Investigate and develop as far as is possible the transition in the field from area concept planning to commissioning systems planning and develop a "systems commissioning path".

- Closely study and review all the "supply and erect" work schedules and satisfy himself that the continued supply of materials and certified drawings will systain the field erection progress requirements.

- Ensure that all documentation generated at the field is pre­pared on the standard format and in accordance with the rele­vant Planning Procedures.

5. Planning/Schedule Levels and Function

5.1 Project Planning Flowchart

Attachment 1 to this procedure outlines Company's standard planning sequence.

This chart indicates the planning levels applied during progress of a project and the basic data used by the planner in executing his work. The centre column illustrates the plans and schedules for all disciplines in Engineering, Procurement and Construction to execute the work in a timely manner, produced respectively by the Home Office planning group and the Field Construction Planner.

The last column indicates the support information and reports by which the job progress and productivity are controlled.

The network planning as indicated is usually a barchart planning but this will not change the flowchart logic.

5.2 Project Summary Schedule

This schedule (Attachment 2) is prepared by the home office planning team organization and indicates the key events and main activity durations to allow for progress control of engineering and procurement.

Only sufficient construction activities are included in the first issues of the Project Summary Schedule to confirm the mechanical completion which is an early one bar line explanatory schedule leading to a project detail schedule.

5.3 Project Detail Schedule (Unit/Area/Module)

This schedule (Attachment 3) is prepared by the home office planning team organization and shows construction activities in greater detail as plotplans and flow diagrams are certified and material deliveries are confirmed against formal orders. This schedule is a two bar line schedule capable of supporting more detail.

5.4 Key Date Schedule for Subcontract Package

This schedule (Attachment 4) is an important contractual document to both Company and the subcontractor. It is based on the project summary schedule and prepared by the Home Office Planning organiza­tion. This barchart type schedule defines significant start and finish key-dates or milestones of indentified activities to be carried out by each subcontractor, and it is issued with the invita­tion to bid. With his bid the subcontractor must include his man­power allocation and histogram to support the key completion dates required by contract.

5.5 Construction Detail Schedules

These schedules are prepared by the Field Construction Planner in accordance with the specific project requirements. Details on developing, monitoring and updating the schedules are defined elsewhere in this standard procedure.

5.6 Planned Manpower Histograms and Progress Curves

The construction schedule having being set, the necessary progress to be maintained in every discipline and the labor resources re­quired is calculated.

From this information, based upon the definitive estimate of the job, the subcontract manpower histograms and the planned progress curves are drawn up .

A manpower histogram for any activity shows the buildup, plateau and decline of the activity work force necessary to complete that activity within specified time parameters.

By proper definition of the scope of the activity the manhours are estimated, taking into account a value for sickness, holiday and weather, and the local rules for the working week.

The schedule defines the earliest and latest start and finish dates of the activity based primarily upon an estimate of the duration and resources available.

5.7 Construction Sub-Contract Schedules

The Subcontractor is required to provide detailed construction schedules, within three or four weeks of contract award, which are in accordance with the "keydate" schedules supplied by Company.

The Subcontractor must prepare, for Company's approval, his detailed schedule breaking down their contract into properly reportable and measurable work units. In support of this he should provide detailed trade manpower histograms and planned progress curves confirming their interpretation of the men required in each trade to execute the work in accordance with the schedule.

The actual progress achieved and the actual manpower used is plotted against the planned progress and manpower. Thus the subcontractor's progess and resources can be easily monitored and trended.

5.8 Detailed/Critical Activity Schedules

For critical or complex activities detailed/critical schedules may be prepared.

Examples are:

- Lining, drying out and installation of reactor internals.

- Rigging/Heavy lift schedules. A schedule of all heavy/high lifts in excess of an agreed parameter such as 10T or 20m to coordinate and maximize heavy and expensive crane usage and to ensure that the right crane is available and that it can get to the field and into position and away with minimum interruption to other facilities. Such a schedule requires the support of a specialist rigging study for critical lifts.

- Column/vessels dressing schedule. A schedule setting out the requirements, timing, duration and labor for column dressing at or off field before erection.

- Shipping and routing schedules. Schedules setting out the requirements, timing, duration and routes of heavy equipment from manufacturer's yard to the field utilizing land (rail or truck) sea, inland waterway or air transportation, the use of helicopters etc.

- Piping line erection schedule.

- Pipe line hydrotesting schedule. A schedule setting out the priorities, requirements, preparation and routing of documenta­tion, availability of test media and adequate pressurizing apparatus, for the preparation, execution, post test and flushing of pipe lines.

- Electrical "power on" schedules. A schedule setting out the priorities for making alive the electrical requirements of the Project to meet intermediate and final completion dates.

- Systems commissioning co-ordination schedules. A "Transition" schedule reconciling the area completions trend to the priority requirements of process systems commissioning.

- "Recovery" schedules. Schedules setting out the use of premium time (e.g. shift and overtime) working in specified areas in order to recover time lost. Such schedules take into account the availability of skilled workers and supervision, advise the most suitable type of work for overtime (e.g., non destructive testing, rework etc.) and analyse the cost implications.

- Equipment internals, trays and refractory lining.

- A complex computer hardware installation and software commis­sioning.

- Break-in/Tie-in chedules.

- Assembling, testing and commissioning schedules of package units such as compressors, refrigeration units, furnaces etc.

- A power-up sequence of Electrical HT and LT unit boards, transformers and Motor Control Centers (MCC's)

Most of the Detailed/Critical Schedules mentioned above may be covered by arrow diagrams which may be summarized into hourly or halfday units by discipline and monitored daily by inspection and mark up.

6. Development of Construction - Schedules/Histograms/Progress Curves

6.1 Key Documents for Effective Overall Scheduling

To carry out the necessary overall construction scheduling effec­tively the following information is required:

- The Contract Document.

- The Project Specification.

- An Equipment List by Units.

- A Construction Manhour Estimate.

- The Job Scope.

- The Job Targets.

6.2 Development of the Overall Construction Schedule

The overall construction barchart schedule (Attachment 5) is based on the Project Detail Schedule and defines all construction disci­plines in further detail.

Concurrent with the development of the Overall Construction Schedule, review and follow up on the following schedules is imperative:

- The Subcontract Bidpackage Schedule, this is a key date bar­chart schedule which highlights the key activities leading the subcontract awards and starts in the field.

This schedule is prepared by the Home Office Subcontract Manager. When a Project Subcontracts Manager is assigned to the field, he will follow up and update this Schedule for bid­packages originated in the Home Office and/or field.

- The Critical Procurement Schedule, this is a barchart schedule which highlights the critical procurement problems in all disciplines (Attachment 6).

6.3 Development of Histograms and Progress Curves

While the overall construction programs are prepared, the construc­tion histograms and progress curves at this level are drawn up (Attachment 7) against the major Company construction stem accounts to establish that the manpower build up and peaks are realistic.

The manhours required per stem account are defined in the Budget estimate or the Subcontractor's latest accepted assessment.

The form used to calculate the histograms and progress curves is the manpower allocation spread sheet (Attachment 8).

The histogram is first prepared using the duration dictated by earliest start - earliest finish. If the build up is too steep or the plateau peaky or too high, the histogram is smoothed out and the duration prolonged by consuming float (if any) to arrive at a realistic target manloading for the activity.

This histogram allocates men per month and care must be taken in considering four and five week months and the contract cut off dates for reporting each period.

In certain disciplines such as piping erection, consideration must also be given to the crew unit as practised in the construction locality (of 4, 6 or 8 men). This histogram may be drawn on 'crews'.

Once the manpower has been satisfactorily spread over the schedule period, the monthly and accumulated progress can be calculated. The monthly period progress must be examined for achievability.

From the planned manpower histogram, the planned progress curve is developed, this is a graph indicating the required rate of progress to complete the work to 100% within specified parameters.

A sample histogram and progress curve is shown in Attachment 7. Note the sudden drop in progress at one point, this is due to an increase in scope resulting in an immediate "drop" in progress, indicating an immediate reassessment and reevaluation of work to be accomplished, particularly with regard to the effect upon the original scheduled completion date.

6.4 Development of the Detailed Construction Schedule

This level of planning defines the work into further detail (Attach­ment 9), at this stage much more information is required and avail­able as follows:

- A preliminary index of drawings.

- Plot plans and general arrangements.

- A final equipment list by units.

- A requisition index.

- Purchase Order status report.

- Cost and Manhour reports.

- Expediting reports.

The Field Construction Planner develops individual barchart sched­ules for each process unit or fabrication yard. The target starting and finishing date are those already established the Overall Construction Schedule.

The overall summary barchart is revised and updated for historical purposes.

Each subcontractor's work is broken down into activity groups identified by interfaces with other disciplines for start or completion.

6.5 Trade Discipline Spread Sheets

Discipline Spread Sheets are now prepared per process and/or fabri­cation area for the relevant subcontractor trade disciplines.

It is important to summarize the total peak manpower called for in a process and/or fabrication area and to compare it with the manpower saturation indicated by the application of one of the appropriate formulae.

From the spread sheets, which should be confirmed by the subcontrac­tor, the scheduled manpower histograms and progress curves are prepared for each process and/or fabrication area.

6.6 Scheduling and Affecting Parameters

The following parameters will have to be taken into account by the Field Construction Planner during the development of the Detailed Construction Schedule and are subject to follow up during the construction perid to assure adherence to the schedule.

- Drawings: the scheduled dates of receipt in the field of complete and final certified drawings to make the activity start on time and continue efficiency and uninterrupted completion.

- Equipment: the scheduled dates of receipt in the field of all equipment items, inspected and passed for erection, in order to sustain the progress of activity as defined.

- Materials: the scheduled dates of receipt in the field of all subcontractor purchased and free issue bulk materials, inspect­ed and passed for installation, in sufficient quantity to enable an effective start and uninterrupted progress to comple­tion of the activity.

- Subcontractor labor: the scheduled availability at field of the necessary subcontractor trade labor, supervision and management support to ensure an effective start and build up to maintain uninterrupted progress to completion of the activity within the time scale required.

- Cranes and construction tools: the assessment and scheduled availability by the responsible subcontractor of all "Construc­tion tools and equipment" to ensure an effective start and uninterrupted progress to completion of the activity.

- Shipping: the necessary advance booking and confirmation of availability, departure and arrival times of all seagoing/water borne transportation, all Rail/Road/Air freight carriers, etc., to support the activity starts, duration and completions to the schedule.

- Vacations and holidays: a proper assessment of the effect of national and local vacations and public holidays, personnel vacations entitlement and preference to ensure an adequate and sufficient labour force at all times to maintain the schedule.

7. Subcontract - Bid Package, Award and Planning

7.1 Subcontractor Bid Package Schedule

This schedule is a barchart listing all the subcontract packages into which the construction work will be segregated, and all the technical, commercial engineering and schedule information that must be brought together in sufficient detail for a substantially final invitation to bid to be drawn up and released for inquiry. Bidding time can be between three to six weeks depending upon content. Technical and commercial bid comparisons can take up to four weeks.

7.2 Bid package Scope Study

The planner must study the work scope of the proposed subcontract packages and, by studying the overall and unit barcharts, extract and group as appropriate parcels of work which can be clearly defined for earliest start and earliest finish. The resulting groups and dates should be specified on a bar chart key date schedule of one or more pages (Attachment 4), and sent to the responsible Project Subcontracts Manager for inclusion in the "invitation to bid" document together with any necessary explanatory narrative.

7.3 Reporting Instructions to Bidders

The bid documents should adequately set out the parameters by which the subcontractor's work is done. The physical progress, manhours used and possible cost increases must be adequately reported, in sufficient detail and at the right time and frequency to coincide with Company's construction coordination and reporting procedures.

The bid documents should include a format example called "Subcon­tractor Weekly Expended Manhours" defining in what detail the subcontractor is expected to report his expended manhours on a weekly basis. The breakdown should compare with the breakdown of activities shown on the Subcontractor Thermometer Progress chart. For a Civil contractor this breakdown could be:

Earthwork, Foundations, Miscellaneous Foundations, Structures, Concrete Trenches, Paving, Levelling and Grading.

In addition the Bidders are to be advised that regular progress meetings will be held, attended by planners and management from Company and the subcontractor to review progress, confirm or change priorities and explore any action necessary to maintain the schedule and a continuous positive working relationship.

7.4 Subcontractor Bid

The Subcontractor's bid must include a written and illustrated confirmation of ability to meet schedule. The Subcontractor's bid should include a properly detailed manpower histogram defining each trade discipline to be put into the field to execute the work. The histogram should not show any excessive peaks and it should generate an even and satisfactory progress curve that complies reasonably with the planner's own knowledge and assessment of the job. For early subcontracts the bid schedule may be reviewed by the Home Office planner who generates the key date schedules. Once, however, the construction field force has been established it should be reviewed by the resident field planner, who should also be present at any preaward meetings.

The schedule review takes place at Field and should be assessed by the Field Planner, subject to any input changes (drawings or materi­al deliveries) as advised by the Home Office planner, that may alter start and finish dates. Since the changes will affect the subcon­tractor's detailed schedule, which will become a contractual docu­ment, this review is important and must be conscientiously executed between tender invitation and contract award.

7.5 Preaward Meeting and Contract Award

This can take another two to four weeks. From Contract Award to start in the field usually requires two to three weeks and sometimes four to six weeks or more when material supply is involved.

7.6 Contract Award and Subcontractor Contractual Detail Schedule

It will have been clearly stated in the invitation to bid documents that the subcontractors obligations are to provide an adequate detailed schedule prepared, continuously and properly progressed and updated, by trained planning personnel in their field office. The schedule must be proposed in the manner and level of detail speci­fied by Company and submitted for approval no later than four weeks after establishment of the field office or commencement of work in the field whichever is later. The Field Construction Planner, through the Project Construction Manager, will review the schedule and reject/approve within 10 working days. In any event a contractu­ally binding schedule must be in force within eight weeks of start of work even if it has to be prepared by Company planning staff and the cost backcharged to the subcontractor.

Company approval/acceptance having been given the subcontractor's detailed schedule becomes a contractual document.

Before the Subcontractor begins the work, the Field Construction Planner in coordination with the Cost Engineer will prepare for each subcontract a planned cost progress curve in which the value of the work is plotted against the time as a percentage of the original budget.

Free supply material and certified for construction drawings should be in the subcontractors field office a minimum of four weeks before the work can commence.

7.7 Records Maintained by the Field Planner

At the closeout of every subcontract, each field construction department completes its section of a standard questionaire and has the opportunity to comment upon the subcontractor performance in so far as it refers to his department. In order to make an effective contribution to this section the Planner should keep records of schedule problems which will be taken into account in recommending the subcontractor for future work.

The Planner keeps a close watch on any schedule activity, the eventual timing of which may lead to a claim by a subcontractor. By maintaining records at the time and keeping a diary of the subcon­tractor's build up of manpower and general performance, a planner's work can go a long way towards refuting claims or substantially reducing them. Claims should be resolved as they arise.

8. Subcontract Progress, Productivity, Reporting and Assessment

8.1 Progress and Productivity

Progress and productivity of every identifiable construction activi­ty are measured and assessed in order to report the progress of the job and assess the viability of completion dates throughout the life of the Project.

Progress in each construction discipline and overall project is scheduled on progress curves.

Actual physical progress is measured in accordance with "Control Factors" and entered on the progress curve at each cut off date.

The Control Factor for each construction discipline is the pay item as identified in the subcontract documents. Each subcontractor is monitored within the following parameters:

- The execution of a pay item against the schedule.

- The manhours spent against the manhours "earned", i.e. the value of the pay items. This is the Productivity.

- The work executed against the cost invoiced.

The above time-cost control factors are applied for comparing the actual progress and manhours expenditure with the planned progress and manhours.

The Field Cost Engineer must plot the value of pay-items actually installed into the planned cost progress curve, so that a trending of progress achieved (i.e. payments due to the Subcontractor) against the planned progress is possible.

Productivity, i.e. efficiency can be measured by the ratio between Budget Manhours estimated to execute the value of the work done and the expended subcontract manhours consumed by the various trade disciplines.

The Budget in this instance means the original plus any applicable and approved change order or extra work authorization. The Field Planner must plot the actual manhour expenditure as reported by the subcontractor into the planned cummulative manhour curve.

Poor productivity in the field can lead to claims, which are time consuming and detract from subcontractor progress. In the extreme a subcontractor may lose so much money that he can no longer afford to continue the work.

8.2 Progress Measurement

Construction progress is always to be measured by more than one parameter if possible. The three parameters generally available to Site Construction Management for this purpose are physical units, money expended and manhours consumed. All of those are compared with budgets or forecasts, depending on job status.

Of the three parameters, it is absolutely required that physical units be used as one of the progress yardsticks. The determining factor in reporting will generally be physical units, but the other determinations provide very useful information on correlating expenditures and subcontractor productivity with physical progress.

A real element of control is attained by comparing actual progress with planned achievements for each subcontract and analyzing the developing trends in conjunction with each subcontractor's planned/­actual manpower levels.

For analyzing and measuring subcontractor progress, Company has computerized methods and a manual method.

8.2.1 Computer Methods

These methods are used for unit rate subcontracts.

a. After award of subcontract, in all cases of unit rate subcon­tracts, the initial Form of Tender is set up on the Home Office mainframe. This will have estimated quantities (entered by Project Control Department) per pay item. All unit rates will be listed and pay items priced.

b. For purposes of identifying the total value of each unit rate subcontract, a contingency element will be added to the total of the Form of Tender. This element represents normal growth of any subcontract plus inclusions, if necessary, for quantifica­tion contingencies or other special contingencies. The added element is to be input after consultation with the Estimator involved and the Engineering Discipline Manager. The Project Control Manager should approve it. This number is to be kept strictly confidential relative to the applicable subcontractor.

c. On a monthly basis, Company and subcontractor personnel agree on quantities installed per pay item per construction document (such as piping iso). Using the site computer as a link to the mainframe, these achieved quantities are input and the subcon­tract reporting system reports monthly completion achieved and cumulative completion.

d. Since this method achieves the requirements of physical mea­surement (automatically weighted by pay item bid values), no further progress measurement on unit rate subcontracts is necessary. However, subcontractor manhours are to be assessed and trended.

e. Properly used, the monthly printouts can be used by the subcon­tractor as invoice back-up.

f. On a monthly basis the mainframe Form of Tender will be rerun to update the Form of Tender in order to keep the construction site regularly informed about scope and total Purchase Order value developments, as well as to enable timely issue of purchase order amendments.

g. As an alternate to the above method, Company may have the subcontractor price each document (such as iso or material sheet) using the applicable unit rates. This will provide an overall value per document. Each document will be input into the field computer and field input of progress will be done a a weekly basis. Monthly cut-offs will be made for erection contractor billing reasons. Otherwise, complete Form of Tender operations on the mainframe remain the same.

8.2.2 Manual Methods

Generally, these methods apply to lump sum subcontractors. If the progress of unit rate subcontracts is to be measured manually, the manual operation will duplicate one of the computer methods in 8.2.1.

For lump sum subcontracts, a good physical breakdown of the work encompassed by the subcontract is to be made with the full agreement of the subcontractor. In doing this, Company estimated quantities should be used as a check on the estimated quantities of the subcontractor.

All operations/quantities are to be weighted and later activities are always to be weighted heavily so that the subcontractor has a strong incentive to complete his work and so he is not overpaid. For instance, large bore piping may be subdivided into erection, weld-out, and testing/finalization. Testing/finalization may only represent 10% of the total value of the large bore piping. However, it should be weighted as heavily as possible. Of course, the subcontractor will resist but pressure must be brought to bear to achieve 15-20% as the weight for the final operation. A similar approach to be used for other disciplines.

A progress/quantity work sheet is to be made and agreed which will be used as the key document for each subcontract. The monthly issue of this work sheet can be utilized as back-up for the subcontractor's invoice.

Subcontractor manhours are also to be correlated and trended.

8.3 Trending and Forecast

Trending is the technique of realistically assessing the development of a situation over a specific period and extrapolating the project results into a forecast.

This is primarily done by comparing the scope of the achieved progress curve with the shape of the scheduled curve and the in­crease/decrease of the deviation over two or more progress reports.

By also taking into account the productivity trend and the expected completion, a forecast can be made.

Also forecast is the increase in final cost and manhours indicated.

8.4 Schedule Trends

This trend control is developed as the subcontractors progress value is compared against the required schedule value every month through­out the Project at agreed monthly cut off dates.

The progress values are plotted on a curve and the following information derived:

- Progress achieved in the period against the scheduled achievement.

- Progress achieved to date against the schedule.

- The percentage, in advance or short of target.

- The time, e.g., weeks/months ahead/behind schedule.

In addition, by comparison with the previous periods returns, the Field Construction Planner can also assess whether the progress being made is gaining on, holding or falling behind schedule.

8.5 Cost Trends

The Cost Engineer in the field in conjunction with the Planner compares the value of the work done against the invoices and the cost of the manhours the subcontractor has used. Thus there are two assessments done to enable a reliable forecast to be made of predicted final manhours, cost and completion dates.

8.6 Material Control and Planning

Material Control is closely related to the field construction planning, this is described in the Field Construction Manual Section VII.

8.7 The Development of Corrective Measures and Implementation

Corrective measures can be made by:

- Altering the work logic.

- Increasing efficiency.

- Changing Construction Methods.

- Working overtime.

- Working shifts.

Each of the above should be assessed for accuracy, viability and cost. They should also be assessed for the degree of confidence in achieving the indicated improvement.

Once the selection has been discussed and accepted it has to be implemented and carefully monitored and controlled to meet the target set.

9. Standard Planning Symbols

A number of standard legend, symbols and markups to be used on all planning documents are attached to this standard.

Attachment 11 Standard Planning Legend - Barcharts. These symbols are to used on all proposal, overall summary and detailed barcharts for whatever purpose. The open symbols on the left are the 'Sched­ule' or planned and only appear on the schedule (S) line except when they appear as a 'forecast', (see Attachments 12 and 13) 'Markup Procedure'. The closed "Actual" achieved symbols appear only on the Actual (A) line and never anywhere else.

Attachment 12 (two sheets) Markup of Project barcharts - The two line system will be used for Engineering and Procurement activities where symbols denote the key steps of progress along a one line activity involving one or more disciplines or departments. For markups of construction activities (double line) on a barchart schedule see Attachment 13.

Attachment 13 (2 sheets) markup procedure for construction activi­ties on schedules and for 'Thermometer' progress charts for inclu­sion in progress reports for both engineering or subcontract disci­plines or by Company stem accounts, (e.g. A through Z).

10. Register of Standard Forms

Listed below are the standard forms currently produced and/or in use by the Company home- and/or the field office planning department.


BN-C 30 Jul. 82 Status Piping Material Program
BN-C 33 Nov. 84 Isometric Release Schedule
BN-UC 1/A Feb. 90 Construction Progress Chart Overall
BN-UC 25 Apr. 90 Manpower and progress curve Subcon­tractor
BN-UC 28 Feb. 90 Cost and Progress Report Subcon­tracts
BN-UC 29 Feb. 90 Manhour Report Subcontract Labor
BN-UC 30/A Jul. 86 Construction Progress Barchart Subcontract Work
BN-UC 40-1/8 Jul. 86 Piping completion analysis (8 sheets)
BN-UC 51 Oct. 81 Record of Drawings
BN-UC 70 Nov. 82 Manpower Spread Worksheet
BN-UE 137 Jul. 84 Project Detail Schedule 18-24-36 and 48 months
BN-US 600 Nov. 85 Project Proposal Schedule
BN-US 600-1 - Project Proposal Schedule
BN-US 601-1/2 - Project Summary Schedule
BN-US 603 Aug. 85 Weighted Physical Progress Table Engineering
BN-US 606 Apr. 86 Piping Area Status Report (Summary)
BN-US 607 Apr. 86 Piping Area Status Report
BN-US 608-1 May 84 Manpower Histogram
BN-US 609 - Manpower Allocation Chart (16 months)
BN-US 610 - Manpower Allocation Chart (29 months)
BN-US 610-1/2/3 - Project Detail Schedule
BN-US 611 - Key Date Schedule for Subcontract Package
BN-US 612 - Planning and Progress Curve
BN-US 613 - Red Flag Report
BN-US 614 9th Mar. 88 Physical Progress
BN-US 614-3 9th Mar. 88 Production Curves Design and Engineering
BN-UP 23 Feb. 85 Purchasing Status
BN-UP 100 Jan. 89 Status Report of Undelivered Materials
BN-UP 102-105 Apr. 80 Expediting Report
BN-UP 200-204 - Various Inspection Report


11. Communication

A vital and too often neglected factor is communication. It is imperative that the Field Construction Planner is involved in all information exchange and decision making related to the development of the detailed construction planning and the performance of work against the agreed schedule.

This involvement includes but is not limited to:

- Receipt and review of contractual and/or client requirements.

- Receipt and review of data that quantify the scope of work or revisions to the scope of work.

- Participation in the establishment of progress report proce­dures.

- Attending regularly scheduled progress meetings.

- Participation in the establishment of schedule and reporting requirements that become part of requests for bids to subcon­tractors.

- Participation in the analysis of subcontractor bids and subse­quent pre-award discussions.

- Receipt of all schedules and revisions produced by the home-office.

- Receipt of up-to-date engineering and procurement information.

- Receipt of inspection and expediting reports.

- Regular coordination with the home-office planning group.

The best schedulers keep in mind that:

- Their fundamental purpose is to communicate.

- Technical excellence will not compensate for non-communicative schedules.

- They cannot work in a vacuum, but must make themselves part of the daily give-and-take of the project.

- They must avoid poor layouts and poor formats.

- The activities they establish must be quantifiable.

- Simplicity is essential.

- Their schedule is not the end product.

The successful completion of the project is the end product.

- They are basically coordinators and ensure that everyone is kept constantly aware of "actual" versus "scheduled".

12. Conclusion

Successful planning and scheduling operations are essential to successful project performance. Their success is directly related to the degree that specific realistic objectives, with efficient control systems are accepted and utilized at all working levels.

13. Attachment summary