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Table of Contents

  1. General
  2. Attachments

1. General

This guide lists the standard definitions of terms commonly to be used in Company.

The correct use of terminology applies to all departments within .

The terminology is based on/derived from industrial standards and codes.

The following institutional abbreviations are used in this section:


American Petroleum Institute


American National Standards Institute


American Society of Mechanical Engineers


American Society for Testing and Materials


American Welding Society


British Standards


International Atomic Energy Agency


International Organization for Standardization


Norsk Standard

Where a definition is an exact duplication of the definition contained in the standard or code, a parenthetical reference to the code or standard is appended to the definition.

Where a definition is an equivalent in concept to the definition contained in the standard or code, but is not an exact duplication of the wording, the parenthetical reference includes an asterisk (*).

The order of precedence used in selecting the definitions contained herein was as follows:

ISO 8402/6215

2. Attachments

1. Company Specific Abbreviations

2. Company Specific Terminology





Approved for Construction


Approved for Design


Above Ground


Authorized Inspection Authority


American National Standards Institute


Advanced Process Control


Automated Piping Design


American Petroleum Institute




Acceptable Quality Level




American Society of Mechanical Engineers


American Society for Testing and Materials


Avoid Verbal Order


American Welding Society


Business Development


Basic Design Engineering Package


Basic Engineering


Basic Engineering Package


BedrijfsHulpVerlening (Enterprise Assistance Service)


Battery Limit


British Standards


Bulk Take Off


Change Alert


Chemical Analysis


Computer Aided Design


Computer Aided Engineering


Construction Accident Risk


Corrective Action Response


Commercial Bid Analysis


Cost Center


Current Cost Outlook


Closed Circuit Television


Conformité Européenne (Conformity European)


Company Funding Request




Company Improvement Team


Company Material Management System


Construction Management Team


Certified Mill Test Report


Change Notice


Change Order


Construction Procedure and Execution Manual


Cost Plus Fixed Fee


Cost Plus Guaranteed Maximum


Cost Plus Incentive Fee


Cost Plus Not To Exceed


Company Six Sigma


Cost Plus Open Ended


Corporate Standards


Carbon Steel


Control Systems Application


Control Valve


Controlled Wiring Systems (program)


Design Basis Memorandum


Document Classification Number


Distributed Control System


Design Development Allowance


Document Distribution Schedule


Design Engineering Practice (Shell)


Documents Received


Enterprise Assistant Service (bedrijfshulpverlening)


European Economic Community


Engineering Flow Diagram


Environmental, Health & Safety


Engineering Procurement Construction


EQuipment Data Management System


Emergency ShutDown


Enterprise Self Defense


Executive Summary Report


Extra Work Authorization


Firm Fixed Price


Failure Mode and Effect Analysis


Fixed Price with Reimbursable Expenses


General Arrangement (drawings)


Gross Order Receipt


Glassfiber Reinforced Epoxy


Gas Tungsten Arc Welding


Heat Affected Zone


HAZard Analysis


HAZard and Operability study


Health, Environmental and Safety


Home Office


Hand Operated Valve


High Pressure


Human Recourses


High Voltage


Heating, Ventilation, Air Conditioning


International Atomic Energy Agency


Inside Battery Limit


Integrated Control System




Inside Diameter


(Intergraph) Instrument Data Manager


Interconnecting Flow Diagram


Inspection Release Note


Information Systems


International Organization for Standardization




Information Technology


Invitation To Bid


Job Prospect Analysis


Job Safety Analysis


Large Bore


Line Designation Table


Lower Explosion Limit


Line LiST system


Low Pressure


Long Radius


Lump Sum Services


Lump Sum Turn Key


Local Time Administrator


Lost Time Accident


Low Voltage


Lost Work time Incident


Metal Active Gas


Main Contractor


Mechanical Completion


Managing Director


Mechanical Data Sheet


Metal Inert Gas


Minutes of Meeting


Motor Operated Valves


Magnetic Particle Inspection


Management Quality Team


Material Receiving Notice


Mail Station


Management Safety Committee


Material Selection Flow Scheme


Material Take-Off


Medium Voltage


Not Applicable


Non Acceptance Notice


Non Conformance


Non Destructive Examination


Niet Destructief Onderzoek


Non Destructive Testing


Norsk Standard


Outside Battery Limit


Outside Diameter


Open DataBase Connectivity




Object Linking and Embedding


Ondernemings Raad (Works Council)


Over Short & Damage (report)


Occupational Safety & Health Act (US)


Oil Water Sewer


Piping & Instrument Diagram


Personnel Assignment Notice


Pre- Assembly Units


Profit Before Tax


Personal Computer


Project Change Bulletin


Project Cost Code


Project Construction Manager


Plant Design System


Process Data Sheet


Project Execution Control system


Process Engineering Flow Scheme


Project Engineering Manager


Process Flow Diagram


Process Flow Scheme


Pre - Inspection Meeting


Project Manager


Piping Material Control


Positive Material Identification


Project Management Services


Purchase Order


Purchase Order Amendment Request


Project Procedure and Execution Manual


Project Quality Plan


(welding) Procedure Qualification Record


Pipe Support


Process Safeguarding Flow Diagram


Process Safeguarding Flow Scheme


Pressure Safety Valve


part time


Pressure Temperature Profile


Poly Vinyl Chloride


Post Weld Heat Treatment


Quality Assurance


Quality Control


Quality Control Memorandum


Quantitative Risk Assessment


Required At Site


Revamp Flow Diagram


Request For Purchase


Request For Quotation


Rough Order of Magnitude


Required On Site


Relief Valve


Restricted Work Incident


Shell and Tube


Small Bore






Safety Checklist Contractors


Supplier Performance Evaluation Report


Spare Part list and Interchangeability Record


Safety Policy and Site Regulations


Short Radius


Stainless Steel


Structural Steel


Time and Materials


Time and Materials Open Ended


Technical Bid Analysis


To Be Assigned


Total Investment Cost


Tungsten Inert Gas


Utility Distribution Diagram


Utility Engineering Flow Scheme


Utility Flow Diagram




Uninterupted Power Supply


Veiligheids Checklist Aannemers


Vendor Furnished Document


Volatile Organic Compounds


Variation Order Request


Vice President


Vendor Print Control


Vendor Performance Evaluation Report


Work Breakdown Structure


Word Processing Center


Welding Procedure Qualification


Welding Procedure Specification





Acceptable Quality Level (AQL)


The AQL is the maximum percent defective (or the maximum number of defects per hundred units) that, for purposes of sampling inspection, can be considered satisfactory as a process average (ASQ A3534).



An act of acknowledging that an activity or item has been reviewed per established requirements without noting any non-approved nonconformances. Acceptance does not imply assumption of responsibilities, endorsing or adding positive authorization.

Acceptance Criteria


A limit is placed on the variation permitted in the characteristics of an item expressed in definitive engineering terms such as dimensional tolerances, chemical composition limits, density and size of defect, temperature ranges, time limits, operating parameters and other similar characteristics.



An occurrence or chain of occurrences whereby injury or illness and/or damage (loss) to materials/assets or the environment is sustained.


(distinguished from: Precision)


The degree of conformity of a measured or calculated value to some recognized standard or specified value. This concept involves the systematic error of an operation, which is seldom negligible (IEEE/ASTM SI 10).

Adverse Condition


A condition not conforming to procedures, codes, standards and/or other documents applicable for a project.



Any material whose P number is three or higher as defined in ASME, Section IX.

Alloy Verification


Verification of the presence (qualitative) and if required quantities of specified elements in alloy materials or consumables used in construction of an item using an accepted analyzing method.



Statement that the product, document or service is in accordance with specified requirements.

Approved Bidders List


A procurement document prepared by Procurement Department, reviewed by Engineering and approved by the Project Manager. This list is the sole basis on which bids are invited.

As-Built Data


Documented data that describes the condition actually achieved in a product (ASME NQA1).



A documented activity performed in accordance with written procedures or check lists to verify, by examination and evaluation of objective evidence, that applicable elements of the quality assurance program have been developed, documented, and effectively implemented in accordance with specified requirements. An audit does not include surveillance or inspection for the purpose of process control or product acceptance (BS 5882 and ASME NQA1*).


Note: The examination and evaluation can cover quality in general, product quality, process quality, as well as quality assurance system itself.



The individual, organization or part of an organization being audited.



An auditor is any individual who performs any portion of an audit (including lead auditors). He/she is qualified to perform the audit, is not necessarily a member of the QA Department (such as technical specialists, and others such as management representatives and auditors in training) and who shall not be directly responsible for the activities being audited.

Audit Team


One or more auditors, including a Lead Auditor, who are authorized to perform an audit (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).



Any recognized body that has legal jurisdiction over the design, fabrication, inspection, installation or operation of a facility. The legal jurisdiction may result from either governmental acts or control requirements.



Vested by a person or agency having the power or right to take a decision. Said power or right may be on behalf of Governments, insurance companies with reference to written, legally accepted documents (such as codes, specifications etc.) or whose opinion is accepted or is recognized to be expert on this subject.

Authorized Inspection


Inspection by an authorized inspector to confirm compliance with a legal code.

Authorized Inspection Agency


An agency authorized to provide inspection services that confirm compliance with a code. The requirements for this inspection is part of the code as well as the requirements for authorizing the agency.

Authorized Inspector


An inspector authorized to confirm compliance with a legal code. The authorized inspector must be employed by an authorized inspection agency and qualified as required by the legal code.



The comparison of two measuring tools or instruments, of which one is a standard with known accuracy and traceable to a higher national or international standard, in order to discover, record and eliminate possible inaccuracy of the measuring tools or instruments which are compared with the standard.

Calibration Certificate


A document that verifies the accuracy of the instrument or equipment used in testing in accordance with a known standard.

Certificate of Compliance


A written statement, signed by a qualified party, attesting that the items or services are in accordance with specified requirements and accompanied by additional information to substantiate the statement (ASME NQA1).

Certificate of Conformance


A written statement signed by a qualified party, certifying that items or services comply with specific requirements (ASME NQA1).



A written attestation that the applicable specified requirements were met, stating the means of verification (e.g. review, inspection, test, witness), which is signed or stamped and dated by the certifying party. Certifications must identify the purchase order and item(s) covered.


(e.g. for purchase or for construction)


The status of a document for which qualified engineers formally attest by signature, that the document fulfills the requirements needed for detailed design, purchase or construction.

Certified Mill Test Report (CMTR)


A document generated by a supplier specifying the requirements as noted in the Purchase Order documentation or codes and it shall include chemical analysis or mechanical, electrical or dimensional properties. CMTR's are not acceptable unless conveying the results of testing by an approved independent testing authority. (See also: Verified Certified Mill Test Report).

Certified Test Report


A written and signed document, approved by a qualified party, that contains sufficient data and information to verify the actual properties of items and the actual results of all required tests (ASME NQA1).



A characteristic is an inherent and measurable property of an item. Such a property may be electrical, mechanical, thermal, hydraulic, electromagnetic, or nuclear and can be expressed as a value for stated or recognized conditions. A characteristic may also be a set of related values of a property, usually shown in graphical form.



Verification of conformance to a specified requirement by review or inspection. The checks' intensity, varying from complete to random sampling, depends on the specified requirements. These requirements will be specified in advance.

Checking (Design)


Is the detailed technical examination of a document to make certain that it is accurate and to ensure that all the technical design inputs, design bases and other design criteria have been correctly incorporated. (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).

Chemical Analysis (CA)


A product, check or verification analysis of the semi-finished or finished product, usually for the purpose of determining conformance to the specification requirements (ASTM-A751).

Client = Customer


The organization to which the engineering organization has contracted its services to engineer (design and analyze) designated items or systems. Contract services may also include procurement and construction of the designated items or systems.



A standard which is recommended or imposed by a regulatory body (BS 5882).


Note: This definition includes "rules and regulations".



The initial testing and start-up process by which a plant is put into operation. Activities include preparation for operation or operating the plant or any part of the plant prior to ready for start-up; e.g., flushing, tightness testing, simulation runs, drying of circuits and refractory, catalyst filling, etc. (BS 5882).

Competent Person


A competent person is one who would be recognized as competent by those normally engaged in or responsible for similar activities. If the task is usually entrusted to persons holding qualifications bestowed by, or recognized by, a professional body, he is expected to possess such qualifications. Where experience is normally required in addition to qualifications, he is expected to have had such experience. Similar principles are applicable where the individual can be expected to be skilled in a particular trade or other activity.


(see also: Nonconformance)


The fulfillment of a specified requirement by a quality characteristic of an item or service, the assessment of which does not depend essentially on the passage of time (BS 4778).

Construction Phase


A period which commences with receipt of items at the construction site and ends when the components and systems are ready for turnover to operations personnel (ASME NQA1).



A document which governs the relationship between client and contractor. Within the following types of contracts are used:

  • Cost Plus Open Ended
  • Cost Plus Not To Exceed
  • Cost Plus Guaranteed Maximum
  • Cost Plus Fixed Fee
  • Cost Plus Incentive Fee
  • Firm Fixed Price
  • Fixed Price with Reimbursable Expenses
  • Time and Materials
  • Time and Materials Open Ended

Contract Documents


All documents incorporated in the contract or subcontract package and/or referred to therein, which form the whole of the contract or subcontract between and its Contractor.



Any organization or individual under contract supplying items or services to the client. It may include the terms Supplier, Subcontractor, Fabricator and subtier levels of these where appropriate (ASME NQA1).

Corrective Action


Those planned actions taken to ensure that conditions adverse to the achievement of quality requirements are identified and corrected, such as item and equipment malfunctions, deficiencies, deviations, and non­conformances. For significant conditions adverse to quality requirements, the program shall provide that the cause of such conditions be determined and corrective actions taken to prevent repetition.

Cost Plus Open Ended (CPOE)


Cost-plus-open-ended contracts provide for payment of allowable costs plus negotiated burden rates on labor and/or costs, without any funding limitation on expenditures.

Cost Plus Not To Exceed (CPNTE)


Cost-plus-not-to-exceed contracts provide for payment of allowable costs plus negotiated burden rates on labor and/or costs, subject to a limitation on the cumulative expenditures. Contractually, the company is not obliged to incur costs and the customer is not obligated to reimburse the company beyond the estimated funding limit.

Cost Plus Guaranteed Maximum (CPGM)


Cost Plus Guaranteed Maximum price contracts provide for payment of allowable costs plus negotiated burden rates on labor and/or costs up to a ceiling price. The Guaranteed Maximum price differs from a not-to-exceed contract in that completion of the contract is required regardless of cost. Sharing agreements may or may not be part of the contract.

Cost Plus Fixed Fee (CPFF)


Cost-plus-fixed-fee contracts provide for payment of allowable costs plus negotiated burden rates on labor plus a negotiated lump sum fee.

Cost Plus Incentive Fee (CPIF)


Cost-plus-incentive-fee contracts provide for payment of allowable costs plus negotiated burden rates on labor and/or costs plus incentive fee amount based upon specific evaluation criteria.

Critical Defect


Defect that judgment and experience indicate is likely to result in hazardous or unsafe conditions for individuals using, maintaining or depending upon the product; or an defect that judgment and experience indicate is likely to prevent performance of the essential functions of a major end item, such as a ship, aircraft, computer, medical equipment or telecommunications satellite (NS 5800, ISO 2859).



The permanent retirement from service of a plant and the work which follows in bringing it to a definitive condition (BS 5882*).



The non-fulfillment of intended usage requirements (ISO 8402).

Defective Material


A material or component which has one or more characteristics that do not comply with specified requirements (ASME NQA1).


Note: “Defective Material” to be read preferably as “Nonconforming Material”.



The technical and management processes which lead to and include the issuance of design documents such as drawings, specifications and other documents defining technical requirements of structures, systems and equipment.

Design Analyses


All process which use design inputs and which result in the generation of information necessary for preparation of design output documents such as drawings, specifications and procedures. Design analyses include calculations (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).

Design Book


Provides the design basis of a plant or unit without mechanical details but inclusive of operating aspects.

Design Changes


Any revision or alteration of the technical requirements defined in, approved and issued, design documents.

Design Criteria


The basic data contained in the design documents to which an item shall be designed. These data can be requirements of the Client, , authorities, suppliers, etc.

Design Documents


Drawings, specifications, data sheets, calculations, records, reports, codes, standards and other documents that will be used in design and/or procurement, manufacture, fabrication, erection/installation, testing, and examination.

Design Input


Those criteria, bases or other design requirements upon which the detailed final design is based.

Design Interface


The boundary between the design related responsibilities and activities of one organization, group, or individual and another organization, group or individual. It includes both the external design interface which is the boundary between different organizations, and the internal design interface, which is the boundary between design units of the same organization, (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).

Design Output


Documents such as drawings, specifications and other documents defining technical requirements of materials, parts, components, equipment, structures and systems.

Design Review


A formal, documented, comprehensive and systematic examination of a design to evaluate the design requirements and the capability of the design to meet these requirements and to identify problems and propose solutions (ISO 8402).

Design Specification


A document provided by the Client or , detailing requirements as to the intended operating conditions in such detail as to constitute an adequate basis for selecting materials and designing, fabricating and inspecting the product(s) as required to comply with the applicable Code requirements.

Design Verification


The process of checking, confirming or substantiating the design to provide assurance that specified requirements have been met. Acceptable methods include design reviews, alternate calculations and testing.

Destructive Testing


Verification of material or component properties by a test which destroys the test piece. Common destructive tests are tensile testing, impact testing, bend testing, compression testing, and proof testing.



A nonconformance or departure of a characteristic from specified requirements (ASME NQA1).

Deviation Permit


See: Production Permit.



Any condition that does not conform to specified requirements including procedural, material, documentation, and construction requirements.


Note: A discrepancy is a difference, an inconsistency (Concise Oxford).



An action to determine how a departure from specified requirements is to be handled or settled. (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).



A drawing, specification, sketch, procedure, item list, or report form containing pertinent data or information.



Any recorded or pictorial information describing, defining, specifying, reporting or certifying activities, requirements, procedures or results (BS 5882 and ASME NQA1*).

Drawings (Design)


Plans, which show a design, complete with sizes, sections, and relative location of all items but generally not showing details of joints and attachments.

Drawings (Shop)


Shop drawings give complete information necessary for fabrication of the item including details of joints and attachments.

Endurance (Life test)


A test in which an item is subjected to specified stress(es) over a specified long period of time or large number of operations, or both, in order to determine its durability.

Engineering Contractor


Any organization or individual under contract supplying engineering services to the client.

Engineering Documents


Engineering documents are all engineering drawings and specifications, which reflect Code or Users Design Specification requirements such as Material-, Welding-, NDE Specification, etc.

Engineering Flow Diagram (EFD)


This document shows all equipment connecting piping, utility piping, complete with control loops and all other instrumentation, all valves and safety measures. It is the main tool for the process engineer to convey information to the piping design office and control systems engineering group for the detailed piping and control systems design.

Erection Contractor


Any organization or individual under contract, supplying services for installation of items on the site to the client.

Equipment Dossier


Describes the equipment used in a plant or unit without consideration of its position or function in the plant.



An element of inspection consisting of investigation of materials, components, supplies, or services to determine conformance to those specified requirements which can be determined by such investigation. Examination is usually non-destructive and includes simple physical manipulation, gauging, and measurements (ASME NQA1).

External Audit


An audit of those portions of an organizations quality assurance program which are performed by another organization (IAEA 50-C/SG-Q).



The occurrence of a defective item while the item is under test or in service.

Final Documentation


All documents required to confirm final condition of an item and includes as-built-data, test reports, and certificates.

Final Inspection


The final inspection carried out by the contractor to verify that all specified inspection has been carried out and that the delivery satisfies all the specified requirements, including documentation requirements.



Survey originated objective evidence that a control feature of the approved quality program was not implemented with an acceptable level of reliability (API-Q1).

Firm Fixed Price (FFP)


A firm-fixed-price contract provides for a price that is not subject to any adjustment on the basis of the contractor's cost experience in performing the contract. This contract type places full responsibility upon the contractor for all costs and resulting profit or loss.

First Aid


Any one time treatment and subsequent observation of minor injuries such as scratches, cuts, burns, splinters, and so forth, which do not require medical care by a physician (even though such care has been provided by a physician or registered professional personnel).

Fixed Price with Reimbursable Expenses (FPw/RE)


A fixed price contract which additionally reimburses the contractor for non-labor costs (i.e., travel and repro).



An indicator of category or rank related to features or characteristics that cover different sets of needs for products or services intended for the same functional use (ISO 8402).



Particular provisions that are considered good practice but which are not mandatory. The term "should" denotes a guideline; the term "shall" denotes a mandatory requirement (ASME NQA1*).

Hold Point


Mandatory point in the manufacturing sequence of which the client's quality control organization shall be notified and work shall not proceed until required inspections and tests have been witnessed or waived in writing.

Incident (near miss)


An occurrence or chain of occurrences which could have caused injury or illness and/or damage (loss) to materials/ assets or the environment.



Any injury or illness, regardless of severity, that results from a single event (or a number of events closely together in time) in the work environment.



A procurement document prepared by the Procurement Department, which is sent to suppliers shown on the Approved Bidders List requesting a proposal for the item and/or service described in the Material Requisition.



Activities such as measuring, examining, testing, gauging one or more characteristics of a product or service and comparing these with specified requirements to determine conformity (ISO 8402).

Inspection Check List


An itemized instruction document that defines and prescribes the manner and sequence of performing a manufacturing or construction site surveillance.

Inspection Point


Any point during manufacture and installation, which comprises inspection activities, as stated in the routing plan of a quality control program.



A qualified inspector employed by the owner, or installer whose duties include the verification of quality related activities or installations or both (ASME NQA1 *).

Interconnecting Flow Diagram (IFD)


This document shows the interconnecting lines between various plant units, e.g. process units, tank farms, etc.



Organizational Interface — A written description of the organizational relationship between the design groups of various project contractors, sub contractors and consultants.



Physical Interface — The physical location identified by coordinates and elevation where divisions in engineering responsibility exist.

Internal Audit


An audit of those portions of an organization's quality assurance program which are performed within its organizational structure (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).



  1. A part, equipment, sub-system or system that can be individually considered and separately examined or tested;
  2. An actual or conventional object on which a set of observations may be made;
  3. Defined quantity of material on which a set of observations may be made;
  4. An observed value, either qualitative (attributes), or quantitative (measured) (BS 4778

Job Instruction


Description of a certain work procedure and determined pattern of action in given situations.

Lead Auditor


An individual qualified to organize and direct an audit, report audit findings, and evaluate corrective action (ASME NQA1).

Line Designation Table


Listing of engineering flow diagram pipelines. It contains additional information including maximum temperature for thermal stress calculations, operating pressure and temperature, design pressure and temperature, testing pressure and medium, insulation code and thickness, paint code and type of heat-tracing.

Lost Work Day Case


Any recordable case that results in the person being temporarily unable to perform any regular job or restricted activity on any day after the day on which the injury was sustained.



The combinations of all technical and corresponding administrative actions intended to retain an item in, or restore it to, a state in which it can perform its required function.


Note: The required function may be defined as a stated condition (BS 4778).

Major Defect


A major defect is one, which reduces the usability of an item for its intended purpose.



One who constructs any class of components, part, or appurtenance to meet prescribed design requirements (ASME NQA1).



Collective term for purchasing, production, inspection and storing.



A substance or combination of substances forming components, parts, pieces, and equipment items (Intended to include such as machinery, castings, liquids, formed steel shapes, aggregates, and cement.) (ASME NQA1).



Equipment, supplies and spares that form the subject of a contract.


Note: This generic term is often used for large scale procurement purposes and avoids the necessity of repeating items covered in this definition.

Material Requisition


A procurement document prepared by engineering personnel which defines material to be purchased with specification, referenced codes and standards and specific quality requirements.

Material Test Report


A document provided by the Material manufacturer giving the results of tests required by the basic material specification.

Mechanical Catalogue


Provides full mechanical details of a plant or unit such as full sets of specifications and requisitions, design drawings and all major supplier prints. Operating aspects are not covered.

Mechanical Completion


Mechanical completion occurs when the plant or any part of the plant has been erected and the systems testing activities are completed as required for the commencement of commissioning activities.

Minor Defect


A minor defect is one that does not materially reduce the usability of an item for its intended purpose, or is a departure from established standards having no significant bearing on the effective use or operation of the item.



A planned change in plant design or operation and accomplished in accordance with the requirements and limitations of applicable codes, standards, specifications, licenses, and predetermined safety restrictions (ASME NQA1).



To watch over, observe, or examine a work operation. Results of the observations and examination may be recorded.



A deficiency in characteristics, documentation or process implementation, which renders the quality of an item indeterminate or outside that, required by the specification. Examples of nonconformance include: physical defects, test failures, incorrect or inadequate documentation, or deviation from prescribed processing, inspection, or test procedures (ASME NQA1).



A deficiency in characteristics, documentation or process implementation, which renders the quality of an item indeterminate or outside that, required by the specification. Examples of nonconformance include: physical defects, test failures, incorrect or inadequate documentation, or deviation from prescribed processing, inspection, or test procedures (ASME NQA1*).



An observed (structural) deficiency in the Quality System, which must be solved by:


- Taking adequate corrective action(s).
- Taking measures to prevent re-occurrence.



The non-fulfillment of specified requirements (ISO 8402).

Non-Destructive Examination (NDE)


Any examination process that determines the quality of a specimen without destroying it, permitting examination of all articles and materials that are to be used. NDE includes non-destructive testing.

Non-Destructive Examination Audit


An audit of the results of NDE's and personnel certifications, the verifications of the accuracy of NDE equipment and determination of the adequacy of interpretation of NDE results.

Non-Destructive Testing (NDT)


Specific non-destructive examination methods used to detect material discontinuities. Five methods of NDT are currently in common use: magnetic particle, liquid penetrant, eddy current, ultrasonic and radiographic.

Objective Evidence


Any fact or documentation containing objective information, either quantitative or qualitative, pertaining to the quality of an item or service which can be obtained by observation, visual inspection, testing, measuring of a feature or quality against applicable specifications, written limits of acceptability etc. (BS 5882*).



An observed single deficiency in the Quality System, which must be resolved by taking adequate corrective action(s).

Observe Point (or: Warning Point)


An operation, test, or examination for which the purchaser's inspector must be notified in advance and for which he has the right to observe, but without requiring the supplier to alter their production schedule to accommodate the inspector's schedule.

Occupational Safety & Health Act (OSHA)


Law 91-596 dated 29/12/70: "A very powerful 'People Oriented Law' which covers each and every company in the United States; requires companies to do whatever they do, wherever they do it, in a Safe and Healthful manner".

Ongoing Improvements


An observed grouping of similar deficiencies in the Quality System to be resolved by improving adherence to requirements.

Operating Manual


Describes the operating aspects of a plant or unit without giving mechanical details.



The person, group, company, or corporation who will have or has title to the facility or installation under construction (ASME NQA1).

Packaged Unit


An assembly of items and parts, which can be disassembled without destroying the integrity of the individual, parts (ASME NQA1).



An item, which has work, performed on it and which is attached to and becomes part of a component before completion of the component (ASME NQA1).



A document describing or identifying specific practices and procedures relevant to particular items, processes or services (BS 5882).



The equipment, piping, structures, buildings and property that comprise an installation or facility (ASME NQA1).

Positive Material Identification (PMI)


See: Alloy Verification.

Pre-Award Meeting


A meeting between purchaser and supplier before the award of a purchase order bringing in line the purchaser's technical, inspection and commercial requirements with the capabilities of the supplier. The meeting is guided by a checklist and is confirmed in Minutes of Meeting.

Pre-Fabrication Meeting


A meeting with a supplier after supplier print review and prior to the start of fabrication to assure mutual understanding and agreement on technical, fabrication and coordination details and review of supplier's inspection plan incl. indication of 's hold points.

Pre-Inspection Meeting


A meeting between inspection group and supplier defining document availability, code requirements, fabrication and inspection responsibilities. The meeting is guided by a checklist and is confirmed in Minutes of Meeting.

(as distinguished from: Accuracy)


The degree of mutual agreement between individual measurements, namely repeatability and reproducibility (ASTM-E380).

Pressure Temperature Profile Diagram (PTP)


This document is prepared by the Process Engineering Department with the purpose of providing project, control systems and piping engineers with the correct pressure and temperature correlations between the various piping systems, vessels, exchangers, etc. The document ensures that proper values are being used for preparation of data sheets, line tables and other documents, e.g. painting systems, insulation, etc.



A quality document describing a flow of work processes and also ‘who’ is responsible for ‘what’.

Procedure Qualification Record (PQR)


The recording on a form of the specific facts involved in the qualifying of a WPS by the demonstration that welds made by that specific procedure can meet prescribed standards.

Process Flow Diagram (PFD)


This document shows the main process equipment, fluid flows, main control loops and critical valves. It is a tool for the process engineer(s) to convey information to project and specialist engineers to design the installation in detail. The Process Engineering Department develops the PFD.

Process Safeguarding Flow Diagram (PSFD)


This document shows the correlation of safety devices installed but indicated on separate PFD's. It highlights the final level of protection provided by the safety systems installed.



The activities performed by a purchaser or his designated representative for obtaining an item or service, beginning with the preparation of specified requirements, and concluding with the purchaser's acceptance of such items or service (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).

Procurement Documents


Contractually binding documents that identify and define the requirements which items or services must meet in order to be considered acceptable by the purchaser (ASME NQA1).

Product Audit


A review of a sample of documents to give the Auditor sufficient insight in the quality of documents produced.

Product Liability


A generic term used to describe the onus on a producer or others to make restitution for loss related to personal injury, property damage or other harm caused by a product or service (ISO 8402).



Collective term for that part of manufacturing which concerns forming and machining of materials and mounting of components.

Production Permit


Written authorization, prior to production or before provision of a service, to depart from specified requirements for a specified quantity or for a specified time (ISO 8402). Examples of production operations are turning, milling, casting, welding, surface treatment etc.

Progressive Inspection


Inspection of an item or component at selected stages of manufacture. Progressive inspection is performed on a periodic basis and as necessary to support witness, hold point and observe point requirements.



A planned series of activities executed by under the contract.

Purchase Order


A procurement document prepared by the procurement group authorizing the supply of items or services described in the material requisition.

Purchase Order Review Meeting


A meeting with a supplier shortly after purchase order commitment to confirm that supplier has received, reviewed and understood all purchase order requirements.



Any individual or organization who placed an order for items or services (BS 5882).

Qualification (Personnel)


The characteristics or abilities gained through training or experience or both that enable an individual to perform a required function (ASME NQA1).

Qualified Party


A person or organization competent and recognized as knowledgeable to perform certain functions (ASME NQA1).

Qualified Procedure


A procedure which incorporates all applicable codes and standards, manufacturer's parameters, and engineering specification and has been proven adequate for its intended purpose (ASME NQA1).

Quality ·

The totality of features and characteristics of a product or service that bear on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs (ISO 8402).


1. (BS 4778) In order to be able to assure, control or improve quality, it is necessary to be able to evaluate it. This definition calls for the identification of those characteristics and features bearing upon the "fitness for purpose" of a product or service. The "ability to satisfy a defined requirement" includes economics as well as availability, maintainability, reliability, design and all other characteristics that the need for a product or service involves

2. The defined requirements for a particular service, product, equipment or unit are as dominated by: Client's and Company requirements (Process performance, equipment life, equipment maintenance and safety). Statutory requirements (such as pressure vessel codes, environmental codes, anti-pollution requirements etc.). Any other non-statutory requirements (such as related to insurance, shipping, etc.).

Quality (Assurance) Program


A description of the overall management and procedures covering the quality assurance actions for the execution of a specific contract or project (BS 5882).

Quality Assurance


All those planned and systematic actions necessary to provide adequate confidence that a product or service will satisfy given requirements for quality (ISO 8402).


Note: The actions have to provide documented confidence that quality control is properly executed.

Quality Assurance Department


A specialized group within which is independent of project execution responsibilities and charged with the responsibility ensuring that the Quality Assurance Program is implemented adequately.

Quality Assurance Procedure


A detailed procedure which forms an integral part of the Quality Assurance Program, to give written policies and procedures governing quality related functions and activities for the execution of the project.

Quality Audit


A systematic and independent examination to determine whether quality activities and related results comply with planned arrangements and whether these arrangements are implemented effectively and are suitable to achieve objectives (ISO 8402).

Quality Control


The operational techniques and activities that are used to fulfill requirements for quality (ISO 8402).


Note: Quality Control is the total of all measures taken within each department to achieve quality. It comprises:


- Standardization and computerization of design and drafting as much as possible.
- Selection and use of qualified personnel, suppliers and subcontractors.
- Execution and logging of extensive and continuous supervisory checks and inspection of work done in the office, in supplier's shops and at site, in accordance with an established quality control plan and accepted quality control procedures.

Quality Control Procedure


A detailed procedure which provides a means to control and/or measure the characteristics of a material, facility or work, to established requirements.

Quality Control Surveillance


The overseeing of a supplier's quality control organization and methods by the customer, his representative or an independent organization (BS 4778).

Quality Loop (Spiral)


Conceptual model of interacting activities that influence the quality of a product or service in the various stages ranging from the identification of needs to the assessment of whether these needs have been satisfied (ISO 8402).

Quality Management


That aspect of the overall management function that determines and implements the quality policy (ISO 8402).

Quality Manual


A document setting out the general quality policies, procedures, and practices of an organization (BS 4778).

Quality Plan


A document setting out the specific quality practices, resources and sequences of activities relevant to a particular product, service, contract or project (ISO 8402).

Quality Policy


The overall quality intentions and direction of an organization as regards quality, as formally expressed by top management (ISO 8402).

Quality System


The organizational structure, responsibilities, procedures, processes and resources for implementing quality management (ISO 8402).

Quality System Review


A formal evaluation by top management of the status and adequacy of the quality system in relation to quality policy and new objectives resulting from changing circumstances (ISO 8402).

Quality Verification


The provision of evidence or proof that requirements for quality have been met (BS 4778).

Ready for Start-up


Ready for start-up is reached when feedstocks can be introduced in the plant for the express purpose to start the production of products in commercial quantities (this stage is often also referred to as “hydrocarbons-in”).



Taking delivery of an item at a designated location (ASME NQA1).



An advice for a possible improvement/corrective action/ further investigation.

Recordable Case


Any work related injury case requiring more than first aid, and all occupational illnesses (including fatalities).



A legal or authority requirement.



A nonconformance disposition that states that an item is unsuitable for its intended purpose and cannot be made suitable in a feasible and economical manner.



The clearance given by an authorized person/body to proceed with the next phase in the line of activities.



The ability of an item to perform a required function under stated conditions for a stated period of time (ISO 8402).


- The term reliability is also used as a reliability characteristic denoting a probability of success or success ratio.
- The word ‘time’ may be replaced by ‘distance’, ‘cycles’, or other quantities or units as may be appropriate.



The process of restoring a nonconforming characteristic to a condition such that the capability of an item to function reliably and safely is unimpaired, even though that item still may not conform to the original requirement (ASME NQA1).



Disposition of a rejected item that can neither be repaired nor reworked.



Something (document) that gives information for record purposes (ASME NQA1).



This document contains the full technical description of the material or work, and the quantities required.



Determining the disposition of a non-conformance as either use-as-is, repair, rework or replace and the associated instructions.

Revamp Flow Diagram (RFD)


This document shows which equipment, lines, control loops etc. must be demolished, modified, removed or relocated etc. in a revamping project. The existing engineering flow diagrams of a plant or unit to be revamped shall be used. In general, two sets of diagrams are to be prepared:


1. updated existing EFD versions for demolishing purposes, RFD's;
2. new "as-built" EFD's.



Examination of documentation, i.e. drawings, specifications, procedures, and/or records, to obtain confidence of conformance to specified requirements.



The process by which a nonconforming item is made to conform to a prior specified requirement by completion, remachining, reassembling, or other corrective means (ASME NQA1).



The Rules are to be understood as being all regulations and requirements decided by the Certification Authorities.



Those activities related to securing human life and health, protecting the environment and securing material values.



Pertaining to those structures, systems and components of installations the satisfactory performance of which is important to the prevention of accidents that could cause undue risk to the health and safety of the public, or to mitigation of the consequences of such accidents (BS 5882*).



A group of items or individuals, taken from a larger collection or population, that provides information needed for assessing a characteristic (or characteristics) of the population, or which serves as a basis for action on the population or the process that produced it (BS 4778).


- The term may also be used to describe a portion of material taken for the same purpose from a larger bulk of material or a sample of observations.
- Many statistical techniques require that the sample shall be drawn at random.

Scheduled Audit


An audit applied on a scheduled basis after contract award. This audit evaluates, but is not limited to, the effectiveness of the QA program, pertaining methods, manuals, procedures and instructions.



Decision to reject a product or a service.

Service Liability


See: Product Liability.



The performance by a supplier of activities such as design, fabrication, inspection, non-destructive, examination, repair or installation (IAEA-50-C/SG-Q).

Shop Survey


Same as supplier evaluation. This term is being phased out of procedures.

Simulation Runs


Simulation runs are commissioning activities conducted to allow run-in and operational testing of the equipment.



The location of both on-plot and off-plot units and facilities which are intended to be constructed

Software Quality Assurance


Program Requirements: New QA Professional Field covered by requirements in MIL-S-52779 and ISO 9005 for the development, implementation and maintenance of a Quality Assurance Program for Computer Software.



The document that prescribes the requirements with which the product or service has to conform (ISO 8402).


Note: The limits of acceptability must be included in the document referred above.



Binding example of a product manufactured by the contractor's manufacturing equipment.



A document approved by a generally recognized body which results from the process of formulating and applying rules for an orderly approach to a specific activity or a physical specimen giving examples of professional performance of work.


Note: This definition includes 's and/or Client's standards.



The act of holding items at the construction site or in an area other than its permanent location in the plant (ASME NQA1).



See: Contractor.



See: Contractor.

Supplier Evaluation


An appraisal to determine whether or not a supplier is capable of producing a component, product or service in accordance with a specified requirement, and providing objective evidence thereof (BS 5882).


Note: Supplier's QA/QC system to be evaluated as well.

Supplier Prints


All of the documents submitted by a vendor to purchaser for either review, approval or record purposes.

Supplier Performance Evaluation


Assessment of a supplier's control of quality carried out during and after completion of manufacture.

Surveillance (Quality)


The continuing monitoring and verification of the status of procedures, methods, conditions, processes, products and services, and analysis of records in relation to stated references to ensure that specified requirements for quality are being met (ISO 8402).

Surveillance Check Plan


An instruction document that defines and prescribes the manner and sequence of performing manufacturing or construction site surveillance.



Formalized collection of mutually coordinated procedures.

System Audit


An audit of effectiveness of the quality assurance program and pertaining methods, procedures and instructions.

Systems Testing


Systems Testing is performed prior to mechanical completion and includes all non-operating activities such as adjustments, cold alignment checks, hydrostatic testing, water flushing, etc.

Technical Documentation


Drawings, specifications, calculations and other technical data, possibly patterns.



The determination or verification of the capability of an item to meet specified requirements by subjecting the item to a set of physical, chemical, environmental or operating conditions (BS 5882 and ASME NQA1).

Time-and-Materials (T&M)


A time-and-materials contract provides for reimbursing the contractor for actual direct labor hours at specified fixed hourly rates that include wages, overhead, general and administrative expenses and profit plus materials at specified rates on cost.

Time-and-Materials Open Ended (T&MOE)


A time-and-materials contract with no funding limitation on expenditures.



The ability to trace the history, application or location of an item or activity, or similar items or activities, by means of recorded identification (ISO 8402).



A continuous program of learning to gain knowledge and improve one's ability in any subject, art or profession. Developing skills and attitudes through self-teaching, working on-the-job, workshop seminars, or formal classroom instructions.



When associated with a dimension, means that the dimension applies to all features that appear to be identical in size and configuration. The tolerance stated for a dimension labeled typical also applies to each identical feature.



A disposition which may be imposed for a nonconformance when it can be established that the discrepancy will result in no adverse conditions and that the item under consideration will continue to meet all engineering functional requirements, including performance, maintainability, fit, and safety (ASME NQA1).

Utilities Flow Diagram (UFD)


This document shows how utilities are generated and distributed from the source or supply point to the various parts of an installation. The diagram shows common control loops, additional equipment that is deemed necessary to supply the utility as required and the safety measures necessary. The diagrams shall be drawn in accordance with the geographical layout of the plant.



The act of reviewing, inspecting, testing, checking, auditing, or otherwise verifying and documenting whether items, processes, services, or documents conform to specified requirements (BS 5882 and ASME NQA1*).

Verified Certified Mill Test Report


A CMTR whose authenticity is confirmed by positive proof. Photocopies of CMTR's are not generally acceptable without further laboratory check testing to the requirements of the appropriate product specification. Alternatively the supplier validates the photocopy by company stamping and signing in ink on the photocopy that the copy is either an original or stating the actual location where the original is held.



Written authorization to use or release a quantity of material, components or stores already produced but which do not conform to the specified requirements (ISO 8402).

Welding Procedure Specification (WPS)


The Welding Procedure Specification (WPS) shall list in detail the various base metal P Numbers to be joined by welding, the filler materials to be used, the range of preheat and post-weld treatment, thickness, and other variables described for each welding process as either essential or non-essential (ASME Section IX).

Witness (verb)


The operation, test, or examination in which the purchaser's inspector must be present during the specified activity.

Witness Point


Point of which the QA department shall be notified and work shall not proceed until required inspections and tests have been witnessed.

Work Standard


Document or physical specimen giving example of professional performance of work.


Piping Design

Advanced Piping Design book from Gulf Publishing Company for which Red-Bag provided the co-author.

Overview of Library

The Library section of the Red-Bag website contains information for the process industry. Read more ...


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